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All you need to know about Brexit issue

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What is Brexit Deal??

The word “Brexit” is composed of “Br” for Britain and “exit”.  Brexit Deal is the 585-page agreement of the UK’s withdrawal from the European Union. UK joined the European Economic Community (EEC) in 1973 under the administration of the Labour Party Prime minister, Harold Wilson. But in 1975, a referendum was held on whether it should remain in the EEC , and 67% of the votes came in favour of staying in the EEC, which continued the membership.

The European Union (EU)

EEC , established in 1957  becomes EU in 1993. EEC was just an Economic Forum but EU is an economic and political partnership of 28 European countries. It has grown to become a “Single Market” by allowing goods and people to move around the member countries. It has set rules in a wide range of areas which includes environment, transport, consumer rights, trade, etc.

Why the people voted in favour of Brexit?

  • Many who oppose the EU believe these institutions no longer serve a purpose. Not only that, these organizations take control away from individual nations. On areas where the EU has been granted authority, like competition policy, agriculture, and copyright and patent laws, the EU rules override national laws. Mistrust and fear of losing control made Brexit a reasonable solution to the public.
  • Another factor is economic interdependence among the member countries. The global recession that began in 2008 was bad around the world, but it was much worse in countries that had adopted Europe’s common currency, the euro. The unemployment rate shot up above 20 percent in countries like Greece and Spain, triggering a massive debt crisis. Seven years after the recession began, Spain and Greece are still suffering from unemployment rates above 20 percent, and many economists believe the euro was the primary culprit. Fortunately, the UK chose not to join the common currency, so there’s little danger of the euro directly affecting the British economy. Nonetheless, euro’s poor performance still provides an extra reason to Brexit supporters.
  • The inflow of immigrants also caused the public to get discouraged from the EU. The EU law guarantees that citizens of one EU country have the right to travel, live, and take jobs in other EU countries. British people have increasingly felt the impact of this rule since the 2008 financial crisis. The Eurozone has struggled economically, and workers from countries such as Ireland, Italy, Lithuania, Poland and Romania have flocked to the UK in search of work. The UK absorbed 333,000 new people in 2015 which is a significant number for a country Britain’s size.
  • The EU doesn’t have the power to directly collect taxes, but it requires member states to make an annual contribution to the central EU budget. Currently, the UK’s contribution is worth about $19 billion per year, which is about $300 per person in the UK. The return is too low than it contributes.The country can keep the money it sends which can be used according to the decision made by the parliament.
  • Also, the EU has been implementing burdensome rules. Some of these EU rules sound simply absurd, like the rule that you can’t recycle a teabag, or that children under eight cannot blow up balloons, or the limits on the power of vacuum cleaners. These kinds of rules also caused the public to want to be independent from the EU.

The Referendum to leave the EU

The United Kingdom is made up of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. On June 23 of 2016, a referendum was held for UK’s possible exit from the EU, where 51.9% votes came in favour of exiting the EU.
The state-wise voting result are as follows:
England and Wales voted for Brexit by 53.4% and 52.5% in favour respectively.
While Scotland and Northern Ireland voted against Brexit by 62% and 55.8% in favour respectively.

The then Prime Minister David Cameron resigned after the result of the referendum came out. Cameron was against the exiting of the UK from the EU.  On July 13, 2016, Theresa May was elected the Prime Minister, with support from the Conservative and Democratic Unionist Party. The UK is scheduled to leave the EU at 11 pm on 29 March, 2019. The cabinet led by May has successfully passed the Brexit deal and it has also been approved by the EU. Only the approval of the “House of Commons” is now required for Britain’s exit from the EU.

On January 15, 2019, an election was held in the House of Commons to pass the Brexit deal. But the parliament voted against it by 432 to 202, which is the worst parliamentary defeat for a Government in British history. The Labour Party and the rebels of Conservative and Democratic Unionist Party voted against the Brexit Deal.

The Prime Minister immediately announced that she would welcome the vote of no confidence from the parliament on her resignation. But after a day of rejecting the Brexit deal, the British parliament voted in her side by 325 votes to 306 – a majority of 19 votes.

In 2014, a referendum was held in Scotland to be an independent country from the UK. The Scottish voted against independence by 55.3% votes. The case on independence was closed then and there. However, the recent Brexit drama has led to call for another referendum on Scottish Independence. The front page of the Scottish National Paper had the headline “Independence is the only way out of this mess.” The Scottish Herald also published a poll showing 56.55% of people think Scotland should have a referendum on Independence if the UK leaves the EU on 29 March.

The people of UK has given mandate to their government to leave EU through the referendum. If Britain leaves EU , Referendrum may held in Scotland which can lead to  Independence of Scotland  from UK. Also , Theresa May has failed to pass Brexit from the “House of Common”. Now ,although she has survived as Prime Minister but still Britain is in Brexit deadlock.

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Knowledge & Infos

Blepharoplasty (Eyelid Surgery)

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Our human face is composed of various small functional and cosmetic units. One of them is our eyes. Eyes serve both as functional (a sensory organ of sight) and cosmetic (it is used to express emotions and do eye contact), so one can say that eyes play a vital role in both your functionality and beauty.

So, it’s not surprising that people get worried when the areas around their eyes face unwanted changes like drooping eyelids or saggy eye bags, since the area around the eyes play equal role in both aesthetic and functional value. To solve the woes of eyelids, there is a surgical option called Blepharoplasty, which is the surgery around the eyelid area, which might be helpful to those seeking to remedy it.

What is Blepharoplasty?

Blepharoplasty, simply explained, is the plastic surgery operation for correcting defects, deformities, and disfigurations of the eyelids; and for aesthetically modifying the eye region of the face. Medically, according to the Indian Journal of Opthamology, it is a surgical procedure in which the eyelid skin, orbicularis oculi muscle, and orbital fat are excised, redraped, or sculpted to rejuvenate the aesthetic look of the patient along with correction of any functional abnormality.

Why is Blepharoplasty done?

According to WebMD, as skin ages, it gradually loses its elasticity. A lack of elasticity plus the constant pull from gravity causes excess skin to collect on the upper and lower eyelids.
Excess skin on the lower eyelid causes wrinkles and bulges. On the upper eyelids, an extra fold of skin can hang over the eyelashes and get in the way of seeing.

So, Blepharoplasty is done to remove excess skin from the upper eyelids and reduce bagginess from the lower eyelids. It can be done for cosmetic reasons, i.e. to enhance the aesthetic look of an individual or it can to done to improve eyesight of people for whom the hanging eyelid causes partial visual impairment (usually on the elderly population)

Before and After

As you can see in the image below the visible difference from before and after comparison.

Eyelid Surgery (Blepharoplasty) - Health Tourism OnlineHealth Tourism Online

Should I get Blepharoplasty?

If baggy eyelids or droopy eyelids run in your family, or droopy eyelids are giving you trouble in your vision or you simply want to enhance your aesthetic appearance of the eyes, you may consult with a plastic surgeon to discuss your options. Usually, if you are in good health, you can go ahead with the procedure.

What are the risks?

Blepharoplasty, like all other surgeries, carry some risks, but due to the advancement of medical technology, all the risks are either temporary or easily mitigated. However, talk to your doctor to determine if any other factor increases the risk in your case.
Some of the risks include:

  • Infection and bleeding
  • Dry, irritated eyes
  • Difficulty closing your eyes or other eyelid problems
  • Noticeable scarring
  • Injury to eye muscles
  • Skin discoloration
  • The need for a follow-up surgery
  • Temporarily blurred vision or, rarely, loss of eyesight
  • Risks associated with surgery in general, including reaction to anesthesia and blood clots

All these risks can be mitigated and Blepharoplasty is considered safe in general.

If you are thinking of getting Blepharoplasty done, you may book a consult at AAVARAN skin Clinic or use their app to move ahead with the process.

Sponsor of this post is Aavaran Skin and Hair Clinic located at Durbarmarg, Kathmandu, which is known for professional Botox treatment in Nepal through certified doctors. We have collaborated with Aavaran Skin and Hair Clinic in creating informative contents as part of our mission of creating an informed society.

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Knowledge & Infos

What is Botox Treatment

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Perhaps one of the most common non surgical cosmetic treatments in the world is Botulinum toxin therapy, more commonly known as Botox. In this article, we seek to explore what Botox is, the process of this treatment and the pros and cons of this treatment.

What is Botox?

According to the Journal of Drug Sciences, Botulinum toxin (Botox) is a drug made from a toxin produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. In large amounts, this toxin can cause botulism, an illness that affects the nerves.

Botox has been used since the 1970s in the field of ophthalmology, and in the last 20 years, its use has expanded to various health scopes, especially dermatology. In addition to its cosmetic applications, Botox is currently used in the treatment of spasms and dystonias, by weakening involved muscles, for the 60-70 day effective period of the drug. The main conditions treated with botulinum toxin are: Cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis) (a neuromuscular disorder involving the head and neck) Blepharospasm (excessive blinking).

How does the process of treatment work?

The Journal of Drug Sciences states that Botulinum toxin exerts its effects by paralyzing skeletal muscle. The pharmacological site of action is at the neuromuscular synapse. In cosmetic applications, a Botox injection, consisting of a small dose of botulinum toxin, can be used to prevent development of wrinkles by paralyzing facial muscles.

The process of administering this treatment is quite short in itself, usually taking less than an hour for the entire session.

When treating fine lines and wrinkles, the dermatologist injects botulinum toxin into targeted muscles on the face or neck. This temporarily relaxes the targeted muscles, causing fine lines and wrinkles to diminish.

According to EmedicineHealth, for the procedure, the patient is placed in a somewhat raised position on the exam table, and the areas to be injected are cleansed with a nonalcohol cleanser, such as Hibiclens or Betadine. Some physicians will apply a topical anesthetic, such as EMLA cream or some alternative, at this time.

The Botox is then injected into the desired areas. Typical injection patterns include about four or five areas on each side of the forehead and two or three areas on either eye area. More areas can be injected by skilled physicians, depending on the type of wrinkles and the desired effect for the patient. It is common for pressure to be applied if an area seems to be bleeding after the injection. While ice is sometimes applied beforehand for comfort reasons, direct pressure is much more effective than ice for control of bleeding and bruising.


Before and after result

As you can see the visible difference. That’s what Botox injection. It smoothens wrinkled skins and thus popular for cosmetic surgery.

Side Effects

According to the American Academy of Dermatology Association, if any patient develops side effects, these tend to be mild and temporary.

The injections, rather than the botulinum toxin itself, cause most mild side effects. For example, a patient may occasionally bruise. If this happens, the bruising lasts about 1 week.

After receiving injections, people have also experienced:

  • Swelling
  • Redness
  • Soreness
  • Bruising
  • Mild headache (uncommon)
  • Weakness in a neighboring muscle, leading to a temporarily droopy brow or eyelid (rare)
  • Signs and symptoms of botulism, including problems breathing, swallowing, or speaking (very rare)

Pros and Cons of the treatment

Pros:

  • – The greatest advantage of this treatment is its ability to take years off of your appearance by eliminating even minor lines and wrinkles.
  • – Another major advantage of this treatment is that it is completely non surgical.
  • – The treatment is also temporary, so if you receive the treatment and are not satisfied with the way it turned out, after 4 to 6 months your face will be back to the previous state.
  • – It also takes a short amount of time for the procedure as compared to other treatments. According to American Association of Dermatology and EMedicine the entire process takes only around an hour, with the actual process of injecting taking less than 10 minutes.
  • – There is no down time, i.e. one can get back to their normal activities (with some precautions) almost immediately after the treatment. Unlike surgeries, this doesn’t take a long rest time.
  • – The results are also visible immediately. It takes between 2 hours to 2 days to visibly observe the results.

Cons:

  • – The advantage of this treatment being temporary also works as the biggest disadvantage, since if one is satisfied with the treatment, they will have to undergo regular treatment every 4 to 6 months.
  • – Botox treatment is slightly expensive. Since this requires regular treatment, the cost can add up.
  • – Since Botox works by temporarily paralyzing some of the facial muscles, it may prevent your face from making certain expressions. Always check how you’ll look after the treatment with your doctor.

In conclusion

Botox is largely considered a safe, non surgical treatment for people seeking to removing the lines and wrinkles from their face. If you seek to get this treatment, you may contact a dermatologist for a consult.

Sponsor of this post is Aavaran Skin and Hair Clinic located at Durbarmarg, Kathmandu, which is known for professional Botox treatment in Nepal through certified doctors. We have collaborated with Aavaran Skin and Hair Clinic in creating informative contents as part of our mission of creating an informed society.

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Knowledge & Infos

The stories behind the places

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Image via Siraj Ahmad

Every place got its name for some reason. There is always a story behind that present generation may not know, so we asked KMAG followers to share the story behind the name of their place. We got the following stories, which may or may not be true but sounds convincing.

Birtamod

It used to be the turning for going towards Birta Bazaar, so people started calling it Birta Jane Mod , turning point to Birta Bazaar, giving birth to the name Birtamod.

Chobhar

Its name came from the bahals (Bahal is a type of courtyard found amongst Newar communities in Nepal.) surrounding the Lokeshwor Adinath Temple at the top of the hill. In Newa language, bahals at the top is called “chwaye bahal’. So, the original name of is Chwaye Bahal, that people later mispronounced and called Chobhar.

Ghattekulo

There used to be a water mill down there. Hence, people started calling it Ghattekulo.

Battisputali

There were 32 stone statue of butterflies (angels) placed inside the inner walls of Ram Mandir, which led to the place being called Battisputali.

Babarmahal

There was the palace of Babar Shamsher there, so people started calling the place Babarmahal.

Lalbandi

This place was previously terrorized by a robber named “Lale,”and he was captured and kept inside the jungle. Later, when people had to go to that place, they started referring to it as “Tyo Lale bandi bhako thau” (the place lale was captured), which later changed to Lalbandi as the short term.

Maitighar

This place got its name changed from its original one because of a huge poster of the film “maitighar” being placed there. It caused the people to call the place as Maitighar itself.

Baglung

There are multiple stories to this place.

  1. In Sanskrit language, “Vyagra” meant “Baagh” and “Lunatiti” meant “Luna”, which is defined as cutting/chopping. At one point in history, this place was full of dangerous tigers (Baagh), which was terrorizing the lives of people living there. So, a group of strong Magar men from the community started killing the tigers to keep the place safe. Since the intention was to clear the place of tigers, the name of the place became “Vyagra Luna” which later mispronounced to “Baglung”
  2. “Bagh” is also a common word in Khas language and “Lung” means a line. Since there were many tigers walking around in the areas in lines, the place got named “Baghlung” which later was mispronounced to “Baglung”
  3. In Magar language, “Wag” means high lands while “Lung” means flat spaces. If we look at the geographical space of Baglung, it has some high hills and some flat spaces. Hence, the word “Baglung” may refer to high and flat spaces combined.

Ghorahi

The name for this place was initially “ghodhai” because of the large amount of horses found there. Later, with the passage of time, it became known as Ghorahi.

Bajhapatan, Pokhara

Some 20 years earlier, before Seti Gandaki Hydro Project, the land was barren and nothing except Ground Nuts used to grow there. Hence Barren = “Bajho” which later changed to Bajha and the name of the place became Bajhapatan.

Mangalbare, Jhapa

The place was named Mangalbare after the weekly market, which used to happen every Tuesday (Mangalbaar).

Chipledhunga, Pokhara

A huge stone lies on the main bazar, which used to be very slippery. Hence the name was derived of “Chiple” (Slippery) and Stone “Dhunga”.

Tamghas, Gulmi

At one point in history, on top of Arjun Daada, there was a palace of a really cruel king. He used to rule his people with extreme taxation and rules such as sending the first harvest to the king — a part of everything like meat, alcohol etc were to be given to the king before the people could eat it. Not only that, he made it mandatory for newly wed brides to spend their first night at his palace. The rule was not limited to his citizens only, but to every wedding party that passed in the way.

One day, a Brahman from Dhurkot was passing with his wedding party (janti) and newly wed wife from the same way, where he was ordered to send his new bride to the palace. He obliged and took his wedding party to stay the night at the foothills of Arjun Daada, which is currently known as Sota Deurali. But, his bride was suspicious of the intentions of the king, so she collected some cow dung and made two “kundas”, filled one with cow milk and another kunda with Resunga’s water. There, she proclaimed that “If anything happens in the palace with me that compromises my truthfulness or character, I will die and these kundas will be filled with blood. If nothing happens, I shall return and the kunda will have milk and water only.” Saying that, she left for the palace.

Next morning, both the kundas were filled with blood. The wedding party called the locals and showed them the kundas, asking what’s happened there. The locals went to the palace to search for the bride, and found her dead. Upon asking the security guards of the palace, they were informed that the bride had put some curse on both the oppressive king and his people who were allowing him to oppress them before she died. That message was relayed by the locals to the wedding party and the Brahmin. Upon learning that his bride was no more, the Brahmin also cursed the king and his followers by saying ” From now on, no one who lives here or rules here shall ever be able to drink milk in the morning, the Thakuri kings who ruled here will have all there heredity destroyed, no one who rears horses here shall prosper” and he also died. The wedding party and the locals could only watch the “tamasha” of him dying, without being able to do much.

The locals realized the atrocities of the king had been done to their wives also, who could only stay silent in his fear. That angered the locals and they killed the king. Since kings were considered a reincarnation of lord Vishnu, when the news was spread to other kingdoms, it was called as a “tamasha” that happened.

That day on, the place became known as “tamasha”, which later was mispronounced to “Tamash” and now is called “Tamghas”

Till date, there are two temples: one where the bride died at Arjun Daada and another at the place the groom died. To avoid the curse of the bride and the groom, to this day, newly wed couples worship in the temples.

Jomsom

Jomsom comes from two words: “Dzong” meaning fort and “Sampa” meaning new. From mispronounciation, it later became known as Jomsom.

Aathrai, Tehrathum

Long ago, eight powerful Rai Kings used to rule the place. Aath = Eight, Aathrai. Although the majority of population there is of Limbus, the name has stuck at Aathari.

Baneshwor

Name came from historic temple of “Badeshwor Mahadev” located in the area, that the area later be called Baneshwor.

Dillibazar

Dillibazar was named after Dilli Jung Thapa, the engineer who designed Charkhal Adda, which is also the state penitentiary.

Sinamangal

Everyone knows that after Prithvi Narayan Shah invaded Kathmandu, he cut the nose of most (or all) who fought in the Malla army. The site where he did was Sinamangal, present day Pepsicola area now known as Purano Sinamangal. “Sinaya” in Newari means nose. They also erected a temple to worship the god of nose, apparently.

PN Shah also gave lands to his entourage who followed him from Gorkha, mostly Brahmin cooks and errand force, at what is now the western side of TIA. That area along with the present day Airport was called “Gauchar” because after the war for unification, those settlers adopted cow herding as their profession and the present day airport had lush greenery to provide fodder for cows.

Eventually century later when the Airport was built there, those people living on the lands occupying present day airport were given lands at the present day Sinamangal (also robbing cows from their fodder), areas around Kathmandu medical College to Bhatkeko pul and hence airport separated old and new Sinamangal.

Banepa

Some of the ancient names of Banepa were Banepur, Baniyapur, Banipur . As it had trade relationship with Tibet from ancient period, Banepa is also known as “Bhont”, “Bhonta”, “Bhon dey(भोंदेय्)”. Banepa is the combination of two words i.e. “Bane” means ‘Business’ and “Pa” means ‘Place’. Therefore, “Banepa” means ‘Place of Business’.

Hallanchowk, Lakeside

People who owned land there sold it in a cheap price and they spent the money to drink alcohol. After that, they used to walk around the area while drunk, fumbling and high. So, that junction was given name ‘Hallan chowk’

Kavrepalanchok

This place was named as the junction of two hills: Kavre hill and Palanchowk hill.

Gothatar

There was a palace of Jagat Jung Rana (son of Junga bahadur) and he had a big cow shed (goth) there in a rice field (taar), so it was called Gothatar.

Sunargaon

Sunars(goldsmiths) lived here in the village (gaun) hence the name Sunargaon!

Katari

Katari is the name of a weapon used to cut wood/ wood log for furniture purpose. Two rivers “Tara” and “Kakaru” pass by the place, which give the shape of weapon “katari”, hence the name.

Chhetrapati

This place was initially called Chhatrapati after the umbrella (chatra) shaped “paati” present there. Later, chhatrapati became mispronounced to Chhetrapati.

Manik Path, Dharan

A kind-hearted person named Manik Shrestha donated most of his private land to make path for main road. So, to honor and acknowledge his contribution, members of community welfare named it as ‘Manik Path.’

Nuwakot

In between Trishuli river and Taadi River, there used to be 9 forts (kots) in the 9 hills, namely Dhaibungkot, Dhadingkot, Ramkot, Firkepkot, Salyankot, Bhairabkot, Malakot, Belkot and Simalkot. A new fort was created at the center of all these forts, which led to its name being “Nawa kot”, i.e. new fort, which was later mispronounced as Nuwakot.

Dhobikhola

The river’s actual name is Rudramati, but because dhobis (people who used to do laundry) used the riverbank for laundry work, so the river was named as “Dhobikhola”

Gorkha

The name Gorkha comes from “Gau” (Cow) + rakha (Rakshak), i.e. protector of the cows. It is believed that Lord Shiva in the form of Lord Gorakhnath himself trained Prithvi Narayan Shah and his army to protect cows, hence the name.

Chitwan

There are several theories on the origin of the name Chitwan:

  • 1. The name Chitwan is a composite of the Sanskrit words चित्त, transliterated “citta” meaning heart, and वन, transliterated “vana” meaning jungle or forest. Thus, the meaning of Chitwan is Heart of the Jungle.
  • 2. Chitwan was a dense forest ruled by the Tharu God-King Chitrasen Baba, thought to an incarnation of Vishnu. Today, the Tharu worship his idol during HariBodhini Ekadashi in Chitrasari en route to the village of Sauraha. Ban (वन) is the local word for a forest, according to this theory, the area was called Chitra Ban (Chitrasen’s forest) which then became Chitwan.
  • 3. The Chitwan forests were populated by leopards and Bengal tigers and, since the Tharu term for a leopard is Chitra, the area became Chitwan.

Disclaimer: The above information is collected from KMAG community. All of them may or may not hold the truth. If there is any false information or alternative story on any place listed above, please write us at [email protected]. You can as well send us stories on more places that we have missed out in this article, so that we can add them in the list.

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