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Knowledge & Infos

History of jeans

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Two things that is so American, one is coca cola and another is jeans.  Jeans is undeniably the most popular outfit of our time.  So how did it all start?  First thing first, jeans was not an invention of America, but credit definitely goes to America for popularizing it.

1700s

Research on the trade of jean fabric shows that it emerged in the cities of Genoa, Italy, and Nîmes, France. Gênes, the French word for Genoa, may be the origin of the word “jeans”.  In Nîmes, weavers tried to reproduce jean fabric but instead developed a similar twill fabric that became known as denim, from de Nîmes, meaning “from Nîmes”.  The Genoese navy equipped its sailors with jeans, as they needed a fabric which could be worn wet or dry.  By the 17th century, jean was a crucial textile for working-class people in Northern Italy.

May 20, 1873 – The Birth of Jeans

Levi Strauss, as a young man in 1851, went from Germany to New York to join his older brothers who ran a goods store. In 1853, he moved to San Francisco to open his own dry goods business. Jacob Davis was a tailor who often bought bolts of cloth from the Levi Strauss & Co. wholesale house. In 1872, Davis wrote to Strauss asking to partner with him to patent and sell clothing reinforced with rivets.  The copper rivets were to reinforce the points of stress, such as pocket corners and at the bottom of the button fly. Levi accepted Davis’s offer, and the two men received US patent No. 139,121 for an “Improvement in Fastening Pocket-Openings” on May 20, 1873.

Initially, Levi’s jeans were simply sturdy trousers worn by factory workers, miners, farmers, and cattlemen throughout the North American West. During this period, men’s jeans had the fly down the front, whereas women’s jeans had the fly down the left side. When Levi Strauss & Co. patented the modern, mass-produced prototype in the year 1873, there were two pockets in the front and one on the back with copper rivets. Later, the jeans were redesigned to today’s industry standard of five pockets including a little watch pocket and copper rivets.

20th century

During World War II, US soldiers introduced jeans to the world, by wearing them off duty.

After James Dean popularized them in the movie Rebel Without a Cause, wearing jeans became a symbol of youth rebellion during the 1950s. During the 1960s the wearing of jeans became more acceptable, and by the 1970s, it had become general fashion in the United States for casual wear.

Also, during 50s, teenagers embraced blue jeans, when Hollywood movies used jeans as a fashionable symbol of rebellion against the status quo. Pop culture “bad boys” such as James Dean and Marlon Brando popularized jeans in their films, wearing denim as they shook up the squares.

The 1960s launched the beginning of the hippie age. The youthful, free love movement that rocked American culture embraced the casual blue jean, which was seen to represent freedom from more structured clothing.  Embroidery, bright colors, stone washing, rhinestones , and patches were just some of the hip jean trends of the time. Popular cuts included bell bottom flares and low-rise hip huggers. Double denim also made its first real appearance as a fashion trend during the 1960s, and jean jackets became standard hippie wear, and were often decorated with sew-on decals.

In the early 1980s, the denim industry introduced the stone-washing technique developed by GWG also known as “Great Western Garment Co.” which helped to bring denim to a larger and more versatile market.

Same time around, Calvin Klein brought denim to the forefront of every fashion designer’s mind. Designer jeans became a true status symbol in popular culture, and brands including Calvin Klein, Jordache, and Gloria Vanderbilt were among the most coveted by fashion girls and guys.  Stone wash, acid wash, and ripped jeans were some of the most desired looks of this decade, along with the new, skinnier leg cuts that were tapered at the ankle. Even men got in on the designer denim trend in this decade, and started to show up more in jeans advertising.

Likewise, with more cultural evolution, there came baggy jeans, skinny jeans, higher waists, cropped legs, and what not all.

and here we are.  Jeans is love, jeans is life.

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International News

Beirut explosion explained

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In one of the biggest non-nuclear explosions, 2,750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate, used in fertilisers and bombs, destroyed part of the Lebanese capital Beirut on Tuesday. The massive blast at Beirut port killed at least 100 people and injured nearly 4,000. 

What triggered the explosion?

The ammonium nitrate had reportedly been in a warehouse in Beirut port for six years after it was unloaded from a ship impounded in 2013.

The head of Beirut port and the head of the customs authority both told local media that they had written to the judiciary several times asking that the chemical be exported or sold on to ensure port safety.

Port General Manager Hassan Koraytem told OTV that they had been aware that the material was dangerous when a court first ordered it stored in the warehouse, “but not to this degree”.

What is ammonium nitrate

  1. Common industrial chemical used mainly as fertiliser in agriculture
  2. Also one of the main components in explosives used in mining
  3. Not explosive on its own, ignites only under the right circumstances
  4. When it explodes, it can release toxic gases including nitrogen oxides and ammonia gas
  5. Strict rules on how to store it safely: site has to be fire-proofed, and not have any drains, pipes or other channels in which ammonium nitrate could build up.

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Knowledge & Infos

How bad and alarming is Corona situation in Nepal

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Image via Kush

As of today, while writing this post, according to worldometer,

World wide corona cases

18,805,350

Deaths

706,445

How much in Nepal so far?

21,390.

It was like yesterday, when we were barely in below 10 and then became 50 and then 100 and 500, and we stopped counting. Many people probably don’t even know that we have now crossed 20 thousands, out of which 60 deaths from corona (official number…it maybe much higher).

But looking at market, streets, and the people, it feels like nothing is happening.

“I have not met or known anyone with Corona yet….i don’t know who is making up those numbers” such doubt might even have crossed across some heads.

And today, the government has rolled back odd/even rule, and seems like even prepared for another Lockdown.

Are things really that bad? Or is it that government knows nothing but to impose lockdown as a childplay? Basically, lockdown is not a solution but a strategy to slow down the rate of disease transmission, so that the situation would not crash our healthcare system, where we have more demand for intensive care than our healthcare system can actually provide.

So, have we reached there yet?

The Kathmandu Post writes:

Due to the rapid spike in the new cases in Kathmandu, all the beds and intensive care units available at hospitals allocated for Covid-19 patients are now occupied. “We are not in a position to admit new patients at our hospital, as all beds are occupied,” Dr Sagar Raj Bhandari, the hospital’s director, told the Post. “We have to send asymptomatic patients home to self-isolate and provide treatment to serious patients.”
The situation is similar at other designated Covid-19 treatment hospitals in the Valley, as all of them have all of their beds occupied by patients. With beds unavailable for new patients, health ministry officials have even stopped contacting infected people to inform them about their test results. “Beds at all hospitals—Sukraraj, Patan Hospital, Armed Police Force, Tribhuvan University Teaching— and isolation facilities at Kirtipur are now occupied by infected people.” “We have been struggling to manage beds for infected people,” an official at the ministry told.

Of the 62 people who tested positive until Monday evening, authorities could arrange beds only for 48. The remaining 14 were sent to Kathmandu Medical College’s isolation unit in Duwakot, Bhaktapur, on Tuesday.

We are not in condition to contact people, who tested positive today, as we don’t have beds for them,” said an official.

Officials from the Epidemiology and Disease Control Division are now banking on the 100-bed isolation ward set up at the Kathmandu Medical College hospital in Duwakot by converting female wards into males. But that too has its challenges.

Doctors at the health ministry concede that the situation in the Valley is alarming, but said that there were no options but to take precautionary measures.

Pretty scary, huh? Stay safe, stay responsible. Just because you have not met any corona-infected does not mean it’s not out there. Trust the numbers, cooperate with authorities, listen to experts, take a precautionary measure. There is no second option.

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Knowledge & Infos

What is bail and why it is in practice

Since many seem confused about what is bail and why it is granted, reason and logic behind, which is creating more confusion and mistrust, we created this informative article to give a fundamental understanding on the topic.

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If you believe in rule of law, you must be ready to live by the principles on which rule of law is founded upon.

You must have come across news like:

“Salman Khan gets bail in Blackbuck Poaching case”
” Corruption-charged politician is out of jail after paying the bail”
“Man accused in fatal drunk-driving case released on bail”

And, if you have ever felt anything like “shit! criminals are just walking out paying money. No law for rich…only for poor,” then you really need to read this. Glad you are here.

What is Bail

In simple term, Bail is the conditional release of a defendant (accused person) with the promise to appear in court when required.

To understand, concept of bail, you must first understand Rule of Law. In rule of law, everyone is innocent until proven guilty. Just because a news said Salman Khan killed a Blackbuck does not mean he is to be imprisoned immediately without a court trial. Even if someone is caught red hand taking a bribe, still no one but the court to tell if was a corruption or not.

So, generally speaking, the procedure is, when someone is accused of an offence or crime, a case is lodged in police station. Then, the police comes and takes the accused one to custody, from where he will be taken to the court for a trial.

Well, court trial is a long process. More complex the case is, more lengthy it will get. Moreover, court has many pending cases and while lining up in the cue, it may take quite sometime to settle the case. So the question comes, should the accused one be locked till the case is not settled or let the accused one be trialed by putting in a followup.

The main concern comes thereafter, what if the defendant (accused one) does not show up once freed? What if the person absconds from the trial? That is why the bail bond. Bail bond is a deposit of money or some form of property to the court by the suspect in return for the release from pre-trial detention.

So when you hear the news like “Person A is released paying the bail of 5 lakhs,” understand that he/she didn’t really got freed by paying money but rather was only bailed out. He/she still has to go through the trial and once proven guilty, has to serve the imprisonment per the law.

Why the Bail

An accused person is not necessarily guilty. Just because someone has accused you of a corruption, it does not necessarily mean to be true, same with many other charges. Now think of a real world. A man with a job is charged of corruption. Is it justifiable to lock him behind a bar forever until he is not proven innocent? What about his job? He may have wife and children at home, what about them? It may take 6 months to settle the case. What if he is proven innocent? Who gonna give him back his job that he lost for being absent for so long, the pain and struggle that wife and children had to bear?

World is not just about Salman Khan or a corrupted politician or rich dad’s son. It has all kind of people with their own struggle, own story, and world is not always fair. That is WHY THE BAIL SYSTEM. If a person is guilty, anyway s/he will be put behind the bar after the judgement is announced. Until then why make them suffer or their family, make them lose their job or cost them heavy, which would be hard to compensate if proven not guilty.

Now, understand this. Law is for everyone. You cannot make one law for poor and one for rich or one for common people and another for celebrity. Likewise, bail as a law cannot be different for rich and poor, or common people and celebrity. “Oh he is celebrity, let’s not give him a bail.” It does not work that way and is not fair.

We get to hear mostly rich people or celebrity getting released on bail because they make a news and not ordinary people. In reality though, bail is also granted for ordinary people.

For this reasoning, bail is a fundamental rights granted by constitution in many countries like Canada.

When the bail is not given

There are also certain cases and crimes which are nonbailable, like for example rape, first-degree murder, terrorism, etc.

Who grants the bail and when

Judge grants the bail after hearing the plead and if the defendant demonstrates compelling reasons why bail should be granted. Bail bond amount depends on person to person, case to case, and the gravity of the situation. Like for example, George Floyd murder suspect Derek Chauvin has bail set at $1.25m.

The decision lies solely on a judge. In the case of Prithvi Malla, defendant first reached to Kathmandu District Court pleading for bail but judge didn’t grant the bail. Then the party appealed in Patan High Court and there too was denied. Then they went to Supreme Court and that’s when joint bench of Sapana Malla Pradhan and Manoj Sharma granted the bail. You see, judge can deny but can appeal to higher court until the supreme court.

Does this only happen in Nepal

Obviously no. The practice came from English law, which later became worldwide.

If you just google bail and search news, you can see lots of news related to bail.

In short

Bail does not mean judiciary selling out itself for the money. It neither means case is over nor means the accused one set free or proven innocent. It only means, instead of being detained on mere accusation, let the accused one to fight the case from outside, while carrying out his daily activities of living and doing his duties. If s/he is proven guilty after the fair trial, s/he will any way serve the imprisonment per the law. Until then why detain if judge is convinced that s/he will not abscond, will comply with the process, and will not interfere with the witnesses, and will not commit further offence.

Hope, you are clear and hence don’t think fishy or conspiracy just because a news said “released on bail.” If you really want to raise your voice, raise a voice on why it takes so much time to settle a case. That should be your real concern against judiciary and not the bail. Bail is a beautiful concept.

This article has only tried to give you a fundamental understanding on what is bail, why it is in practice, the reason and importance, and how it works. With this, we are sure you can research more in depth and have more better and deeper understanding so that you don’t cry foul next time just like that.

If you believe in rule of law, you must be ready to live by the principles on which rule of law is founded upon.

Do it only if you meant it.
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