BY: Rukshana Kapali
The most tyrannical thing is Khas language or Parbate language, the native language of Khas people has taken the only privilege to be called Nepali language. If all the ethnic groups of Nepal are Nepali, why is only one ethnic language called Nepali? Cannot Khas language maintain its lingua franca status by maintaining its own original name?
There are a many things that a non-Khas person cannot do in mother-tongue in the Nepal and this becomes especially difficult when one goes down the socio-economic ladder.
- One cannot write to parliamentary committees in their mother-tongue (thus cutting out a majority of the people from the legislative process).
- One cannot expect public sector banks to provide forms, documents and ATM choices in their mother-tongue even in their own indigenous place and areas.
- One cannot expect air-plane safety announcements to be in the local language/major languages of the destination.
- One cannot have passports and other documents in their own language (Canada does, Switzerland does in 5 languages, even Sri Lanka mentions both Sinhalese and Tamil, many others do).
- One cannot argue in their courts in their mother-tongue.
- One cannot take competitive exams like Loksewa and a host of other `national` exams in their mother-tongue, not even in few major languages of Nepal.
- One cannot expect in an age of increasing digitization of information that `national` websites will also be in their mother-tongue.
- One cannot expect that `national` institutions do essay competitions for children who do not speak Nepali.
- One cannot expect that Income Tax website and forms are understandable in the mother-tongues of the majority of tax-payers.
- One cannot expect that central government and Bank employees will be paid cash incentives to learn some Nepalese language other than Nepali.
- One cannot expect their own mother-tongue signage in public vehicles in their own indigenous area.
- One cannot expect a Maithili film to have a CBFC certificate in Maithili. One cannot expect education of and in mother language.
The list goes on and on. When a nation-state treats huge sections of its citizens as second class, do those citizens have the same obligation of loyalty to that system as the first class citizens? Only a twisted and hypocritical supremacist can claim to believe in `diversity` and then unilaterally dictate which specific kind of `common` interface that needs to be developed.
This is not accidental and is by design. If you are discriminated on the basis of your mother-tongue, are you independent or free? Back in the Panchayat era, Bir Nemawang was jailed when he taught in the Limbu language because except for Newari and Maithili, it was illegal to provide education in the mother tongues of different indigenous communities. It is human nature for every community to want to listen to and read information in its language. Keeping this in mind, indigenous journalists started publishing newspapers and broadcasting radio and television programs in their respective mother tongues. This effort protects one of the basic human rights, the right to information. The right to information plays a vital role in ensuring good governance. Every citizen has a right to know how the government and state function, in order to guarantee transparency, balanced governance, social inclusion and sustained numbers of components of human rights, is an essential element.
Furthermore, it empowers every citizen to seek any information from the government, inspect any government document and seek certified photocopies. Some laws related to it also empower citizens to officially inspect any government work or take samples of the material used in any work. The latest constitution of Nepal, despite being called progressive, lacks a clause guaranteeing Right to information in mother language. Most of the indigenous people cannot even speak Nepali properly (or, not at all.) Due to the language problem, they have not been able to exercise their right properly.
Demography Of late indigenous communities have begun to voice their concerns actively in the media. Indigenous journalists, in particular, work to inform, educate and entertain their respective communities. Currently, 93.07 percent of the newspapers published in Nepal are in non-indigenous languages. Among them, 68.42 percent are published in the official language Nepali and 24.65 percent in English, Hindi and English-Nepali. The media in indigenous languages accounts for only 6.58 percent of the total while indigenous people make up 37.2 percent of the national population. The national daily Gorkhapatra publishes a supplement daily in two languages in rotation from among 32 indigenous languages. The journey, however, has not been easy. Way back in 1995, when Amrit Yonjan and his team published the first newspaper in the Tamang language named Syo Mhendo (meaning morning flower), they were jailed. It was only after the Interim Constitution 2007 enshrined linguistic rights in articles 5 and 1, which led to an immense growth in indigenous media. Sandhya Times, Inap, Swaniga and other newspapers were published in Newari. Now there are 43 Newari, 13 Tharu, 10 Tamang and 2 Rai language newspapers. Also, 294 supplements in other languages have been published. Even so, the number of indigenous journalists is less than journalists from other communities. According to the Department of Information, there are 432 indigenous journalists among a total of 3,066 in Nepal. Similarly, the Federation of Nepali Journalists has listed 1,886 indigenous journalists while the Federation of Indigenous Nationalities Journalists has put the figure at 1,539 indigenous journalists.
No doubt, indigenous media has been playing a vital role in the empowerment of indigenous people. Nowadays, most FM and television stations broadcast news and entertainment programmes in different languages. However, 26 communities have not been able to bring out publications in their respective mother tongues d ue to economic and educational problems. Chandra Kulung, the first president of the Federation of Nepalese Indigenous Journalists, has rightly said, “Indigenous media can play a vital role in sustaining the people’s right to information, but the government has no specific policy and plan to develop indigenous media. The government must formulate policies to develop and sustain indigenous media. New policies are needed for the development of indigenous media.” Required amendments in the constitution: Right to information in mother language: Every citizen should have right to ask information in their own language. No one should be jailed without pre-information in their mother language. Even when we are taught the concept of Secularism in Nepal, people relevantly explain that Nepal is a secular state because Nepal is are not bounded by an religion. Nepal shall remain a secular country. Similarly, when wee jumped on the concept of linguistic equality, we articulate that Khas(Nepali) is Nepal’s national language. If Nepal is not bounded by any religion, why should it be bounded by any language? Why can’t we have linguistic equality in such means? Can’t Nepal declare multi-lingual official ? Why this Khas language imposed? Nepal has 123 languages as mother tongue.
That is all. Don’t get carried away by the words ”Majority Nepali”. Never address the language as “Nepali”. It is a propaganda tactic. Always call it “Khas language”. Nepal is about Unity in Diversity and this is how Khas language imperialism is destroying that diversity and the non-Khas traditional languages of Nepal. Let learning languages be voluntary. Education and learning are so central to the progress of a nation. Playing politics with it is an unpardonable mistake. Some Khas bigot told that we need Khas language to preserve Nepal’s culture. People think Nepal’s culture = Culture of the Khas people. They must be thinking that Newa culture, Tamang culture, Tharu Culture, etc are all nuisance invented by separatists t o divide us. I don’t understand what kind of social studies do they study in school that they become so numb and dumb towards linguistic and cultural diversity of Nepal that exists. Why do we need one language/ one religion/ one ethnicity for the entire nation? Just because more people speak Khas language, it doesn’t mean Khas language should be forced upon people who don’t want it. Every language is our national language.
Dear so called- unifists, we have no problem learning Khas language, after all it is (one of) our
national languages and frankly, it is not going to destroy other mother tongues. What annoys us though is, how you are forcing Khas language down our throats. You see what you don’t understand about Nepal is that we are “Diverse” and that is the beauty of being in Nepal. We survived all these centuries just fine without one unifying language and my guess is, we will be just as fine in the future.
The Khas bigots seems to experience suffocation if their language is not welcomed somewhere they’ve migrated. They don’t care that if others feel the same. They don’t realize how suffocated we are that our language is of null value even when we are in our own states. This is one of the important places where laws side with crime. The main reason some language bigots suggest not to legalize multi-lingualism is that when they’re gonna permanently migrate & settle somewhere, they’ll have a burden to learn a new language. They also say after multi-lingual laws are introduced, migrants will face problems of languages. Migrants don’t want to learn our language when they’re settling on our land, but we natives, despite of living in our own land, we “must” learn a foreign language. We must learn Khas language, otherwise we will be boycotted from all politics, governmental tasks/official tasks & even to gaining education & information even in our own places. We can’t even do anything without learning a foreign language! How tyrannical is this? If learning language is a good skill, doesn’t it apply to migrants as well? For comfort of migrants, because they feel the language of the place they’re living as a burden, why will natives destroy their language or not get their language rights? “Be a Roman when you are in Rome”
Every Nepali of this multi-lingual democracy has the right to stay culturally original & healthy. There has been a farsighted, slow, strategic, deliberate effort of cultural contamination suitable to predominantly Khas language speaking people of Khasan heartland & overall Khas language dominated Kollywood business in recent times. This consistent, persistent & sustained deliberation has been found to have accelerated in the sports, television, theatre & cinema entertainment with a full sweet diabetic thrust. This cunning Khas linguistic injection in every domain profession today not only promises to maintain its biased linguistic hegemony over other regional languages, but also ensures a smooth cultural invasion through a sweet pill of anesthetic entertainment and miscellaneous media thereby ‘penetrating’ the strong regional linguistic essence of every region. It has become a challenge today to make non-Khas speaking viewers to watch a Khas movie, TV serial or news or a sports channel, etc, and thus sky rocket its business. The graph of their business returns have reached a halted horizontal. They therefore have gotten desperate to curtail & decimate this regional-national linguistic challenge through encouraging non-Khas speaking people to sub-consciously pollute their own strong ‘original’ linguistic roots & bust open their cultural genesis. They seem to be least bothered through overlooking the fact that every linguistic & cultural origin should be consciously nurtured, preserved & respected through a collective effort as a citizen of this diverse multi-lingual Nepalese democracy. But this is conveniently forgotten. The enforcement of tri-lingual policy in states is a clear high handed practical citation. The ‘Khas language domination’ knows that tomorrow they just might have to face a well justified stern rebellion from every region in their effort to uphold their basic right of linguistic equality. Khas language imperialists believe that they have the right to secure jobs, other opportunities and get settled, overriding the opportunities of the respective natives. They stir up controversies through ‘labeling’ the native cause as an ‘unconstitutional insider-outsider issue’ and seek constitutional sympathy in the name of indigenous people being parochial & sectarian. They fear of orderliness & discipline that will enable every native of every region to avail righteous opportunities of their state, which will leave ‘them’ with less opportunities given the current disastrous plight of their ‘own’ state. They fear of language becoming a barrier since the linguistic disparity will stand uprooted, which otherwise enabled them to unjustly hold on to diverse opportunities from across states in the name of right to migration for being special patriotic of Nepalese democratic constitutional setup.
Be consciously wary of any possible subconscious contribution to the hazardous reinforcement & proliferation of Khas language. Nothing against no language, but its sweet poisonous hegemonic discrimination. Kindly DO NOT let the sweet Khas cultural injection with an intent of genetic contamination infect you with ‘Khas diabetes’. One has full right to stay culturally original & healthy.
What’s Special Today: November 10
Historically native to the Indian states of Bihar, eastern Uttar Pradesh and Jharkhand and the southern part of Nepal, Chhath is one of those festivals that transcends the caste system that exists in the society. According to the Hindu calendar, it is celebrated on the sixth day of the lunar month of Kartik. The Chhath Puja is a 4-day long ritual specially offered to the solar deity, Surya, to show thankfulness for good health, good life and to request the granting of some certain wishes.
Day 1: On the first day, the devotees after bathing clean their house and eat the food that is offered to the god to protect the mind from the vengeful tendency.
Day 2: On the second day, the devotees are not allowed to drink even a single drop of water but, in the evening, they eat kheer made up of jaggery, fruits.
Day 3: The evening of the third day which is also known as sandhya ‘arghya’ day where a bamboo basket is decorated with various puja materials, fruits, thekuwa, and laddus which are offered as an ‘argya’ to the Sun. Also, the Chhathi Maiya is worshipped.
Day 4: On the last day of Chhath puja again an arghya is offered to the Sun God but this time in the morning. The devotees go to the riverbank to offer arghya to the rising sun and break their fast and conclude their four-day long worship.
Happy Chhath to everyone! Don’t forget to enjoy some thekuwas!!
World Keratoconus Day:
Every year on November 10, World Keratoconus Day is celebrated to focus global attention on keratoconus and ectatic corneal disorders. The day was first celebrated by National Keratoconus Foundation.
Keratoconus is a disease that causes the cornea to become weak, leading to the thinning and stretching of the cornea, which may result in the loss of vision. Keratoconus is degeneration of the structure of the cornea. The shape of the cornea slowly changes from the normal round shape to a cone shape which affects the vision. The keratoconus mainly develops in teenagers and young adults and the disease keeps on growing, if not diagnosed in time.
The disease has no prevention and no treatment. With early diagnosis, the disease can be managed and further damage can be protected. In Nepal, the prevalence of Keratoconus is 1 in 2000 according to the recent journal. So, this world keratoconus day, make a commitment to visit an eye doctor once a year for the early diagnosis of keratoconus as well as other eye diseases.
KMAG Online Writing Workshop reading materials
Covers communication and types of writing. Please check the following articles.
Also, check out: How miscommunication happens (and how to avoid it)
Covers content management system/WordPress, and how to introduce yourself. Please check the following articles.
Covers the basics of expository writing and CV writing.
Covers persuasive writing.Please check the following articles.
Covers how to write research-based opinion writing.
Personal journal writing (my diary)
Figure of speech and rhetoric.
How to frame questions.
Types of Figure of Speech with examples (Part 1)
Accumulation is a figure of speech, in which the points made previously are presented again in a compact, forceful manner. It often employs the use of climax in the summation of a speech.
- We learned communication, we learned types of writing, we learned rhetoric, we learned figure of speech. In all this, we made new friends, we spent hours together.
- He founded Nepal; fought for unification, fought for diversity. Leaving wife and child home, he set to occupy the land of people, land of flowers and trees. And he built a country that we call Nepal.
- Your organization, your vigilance, your devotion to duty, your zeal for the cause must be raised to the highest intensity.” Winston Churchill, Speech, 14 July 1941. (This sentence comes after a lengthy passage in which Churchill warns the public that their courage and effort are still needed to defeat the enemy).
A figure of speech that refers to the repetition of words with the same root word.
- I will be somewhere, someday, settled with somebody in some place.
- I am nobody, reaching no where in this no man’s land.
- In the vastness of universe, I am vastly clueless.
A literary stylistic device, where a series of words in a row have the same first consonant sound.
- Nepalese never nag about Nepal not nationalising.
- Looks like lion likes licking lizard.
- Come count my comb.
A figure of speech in the form of hyperbole taken to such extreme lengths as to insinuate a complete impossibility.
- I will meet you when sun rises from west.
- Before I finish the work, I will grow a horn.
- Stone will talk but she won’t.
Derives from the Greek word anakolouthon, literally means “lacking sequence”, is a figure of speech which consists in the abrupt disruption in syntax. Opens in new window resulting from two non-parallel grammatical constructions.
- I am hungry – have you never played football?
- I miss the burgher at – did you see my daughter?
- Never in my life – what’s in your mind?
The repetition of the last word of a preceding clause. The word is used at the end of a sentence and then used again at the beginning of the next sentence..
- It’s midnight. Midnight with stars. Stars with the moon. Moon looking at my window. Window hiding me.
- “Fear leads to anger. Anger leads to hate. Hate leads to suffering.”
- “Your beliefs become your thoughts, your thoughts become your words, your words become your actions, your actions become your habits, your habits become your values, your values become your destiny.”
A rhetorical device that consists of repeating a sequence of words at the beginnings of neighboring clauses, thereby lending them emphasis.
- When you felt like giving up, when you felt like crying, when you felt like hitting the wall, just do it.
- It was the best of times, it was the worst of times, it was the age of wisdom, it was the age of foolishness, it was the epoch of belief, it was the epoch of incredulity, it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair, we had everything before us, we had nothing before us, we were all going direct to Heaven, we were all going direct the other way
- “I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: ‘We hold these truths to be self-evident: that all men are created equal.’ I have a dream that one day on the red hills of Georgia the sons of former slaves and the sons of former slave owners will be able to sit down together at a table of brotherhood. I have a dream that one day even the state of Mississippi, a state, sweltering with the heat of injustice, sweltering with the heat of oppression, will be transformed into an oasis of freedom and justice. I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their character. I have a dream today.
A figure of speech in which the normal word order of the subject, the verb, and the object is changed.
- Instead of I like Nepal, “Nepal I like.”
- World I want to change.
- I, her will keep loving till the end
It is when a specific point, expectations are raised, everything is built-up and then suddenly something boring or disappointing happens.
- He killed the king, freed the people, and took the sword and killed himself.
- People, pets, batteries, … all are dead.
- He loved her so much …he killed her.
is the usage of a word in a new grammatical form, most often the usage of a noun as a verb.
- Can you please google to find out the meaning of “anthimeria”? (google is actually noun)
- The thunder would not peace at my bidding.
- Let’s do some eating. (verb being used as noun)
the repetition of words in successive clauses, but in transposed order.
- Eat to live, not live to eat
- All crime is vulgar, just as all vulgarity is crime.
- Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.
The repetition of the same word or words at the end of successive phrases, clauses or sentences.
- There is no Negro problem. There is no Southern problem. There is no Northern problem. There is only an American problem.
- When I was a child, I spoke as a child, I understood as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things.
- Nepal is beautiful. Nepalese are beautiful. Her style is beautiful. Her heart is beautiful.
is used in writing or speech either as a proposition that contrasts with or reverses some previously mentioned proposition, or when two opposites are introduced together for contrasting effect.
- I am rich man who longs for a poverty.
- When in war, we long for peace; when in peace, we long for war.
- Let’s play with the fire to feel the rain.
It often appears in the form of a rhetorical question which is meant to imply a difference between the present thing being discussed and the general notion of the subject. Statement that calls into question the definition of a word.
- You eat meat and you call yourself animal lover?.
- How can you call this country a peaceful country when everywhere is chaos?.
- How am I even a writer with this kind of writing?
A figure of speech wherein a sentence is deliberately broken off and left unfinished, the ending to be supplied by the imagination, giving an impression of unwillingness or inability to continue.
- Please leave my home or else – !.
- I want to go home now. If not.
- And she left with. I don’t even want to share.
Apposition is a grammatical construction in which two elements, normally noun phrases, are placed side by side and so one element identifies the other in a different way.
- Nepal, my home, is where I want to die.
- My brother, Mr. Suresh, is joining me.
- Mr. Oli, a famous politician, is giving a speech.
Repetition of vowel sounds
- Reave, please leave.
- Hire and fire.
- Write so bright that it will frighten right.
ASTEISMUS (not needed but know it anyway)
he rhetorical term for achieving polite or soft mockery whereby the replier catches a sensitive word and redirects it back to the interlocutor with an unexpected twist. Example:
- Judge: You’re charged with vagrancy. Are you guilty or not guilty?
Ollie: Not guilty, Your Highness.
Judge: On what grounds?
Stan: We weren’t on the grounds. We were sleeping on the park bench.
A literary scheme in which one or several conjunctions are deliberately omitted from a series of related clauses.
- He ran, he climbed, he conquered .
- I wanted to participate, i made it.
- Government of the people, by the people, for the people shall not perish from the earth.
Co-reference of one expression with another expression which follows it, in which the latter defines the first.
- If you want to eat something, there is pizza in the freeze.
- If you want her, she is Ms. Lisa.
- He is an idiot. He is a douche. He is lazy. He is my friend, Nishant.
a figure of speech in which words, phrases, or clauses are arranged in order of increasing importance. Or say, a figure of speech in which successive words, phrases, clauses, or sentences are arranged in ascending order of importance, as in “Look! Up in the sky! It’s a bird! It’s a plane! It’s Superman!”
- When there is job, when there is peace, and when there is love, happiness occurs.
- We want freedom, liberty and democracy.
- Men and women are equal, but above, it’s the responsibility.