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Knowledge & Infos

The Grandfather Paradox and Time Travel

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Fiction or philosophy, time travel has always astonished many individual. The “Back to the Future (1985)” movie has become a classic over the years and still provokes our desire to be able to live the past or see the future. Though the work of fiction in itself doesn’t explain the physically possibility of time travel, it does stirs the curiosity of many. Looking at it from the watch glass of a physicists, it seems going into the future can be possible but travelling to the past does not seem to be decisively possible just yet.

In the following post, I will be only talking about travelling back in time for that is where the paradox occurs but you can read about future travel here.

The Grandfather paradox:

To being with, let us walk through an imaginary world. In this world, there is a man named Tom and he has a fully functional time machine. Tom had a grandfather who recently died due to natural causes. For some reason, he was always angry with his grandfather. Tom was so angry that his anger got him homicidal and Tom decides to travel back in time and kill his grandfather during his 20s. Tom starts up his time machine and goes back in time when his grandfather is still single. He points his gun at him and shoots him.

Now the problem arise that, if he killed his grandfather before he got married, and conceived his parent then he was never born and if he was never born how could he exist to go back in time to kill his grandfather? Such circumstance creates the paradox known as the The Grandfather paradox.

This problem of causality is fundamental in nature and will occur if and effect is allowed to precede its cause.

The solution:

Though it is disputable there can be a solution to the grandfather paradox. If the universe somehow cause Tom to miss the shot and not be able to kill his grandfather, his grandfather would not die and Tom will be born and he can go back and try again and miss again and the loop can continue.

Other can be Tom goes back in time, kill his grandfather but the timeline he killed his grandfather is different from the one he came back from. That would mean in an alternative worldline, he is not born but in his own worldline he exists and he didn’t kill his grandfather.

Just like that, we have also a third solution. In quantum mechanics there a phenomenon called quantum superposition. In this state an object can be in multiple different state at the same time. Leaving your common intuition behind, in this state the grandfather can be alive and dead at the same time in a superposition state. That means the grandfather didn’t die so the grandson is born and the grandson goes back in time and kills the grandfather so the grandson is not born now and thus the grandfather didn’t die. This loop is of two different retrocausal events are in superposition thus eliminating the paradox.

The Time Travel:

Now for the actual travel we would need a device that is capable of sending us back. From Einstein’s general relativity, after solving it to some exact solution, we get solutions like transversable wormhole, Gödel metric etc which follow Closed Timelike Curve. These are supposedly the regions of spacetime that will follow a fixed closed curve of spacetime and thus meeting the end and the beginning. If we are to trace its path then we can be able to reach back to a certain point of time. Though Novikov self-consistency principle seems to show that it will be consistent and no paradox will arise, Stephen Hawking has labeled the chronology protection conjecture that claims that such closed timelike curves won’t exist in nature in any macroscopic level.

Though some mathematics and theory don’t rule out the possibility of back time travel the essentials of a fully functional time travel is nowhere near possible to construct or discover. The possibility of antimatter being the particle travelling back in time is theorized by Wheeler–Feynman and is quite accepted. Thus most theories suggests that quantum particles or simply very very small particles that abide with the laws of quantum mechanics might be able to travel back in time without breaking the causality but for macroscale the chances seems to be pretty slim.

Conclusion:

Aristotle believed that water is homoiomerous and infinitely divisible: any bit of water could be subdivided, in principle, into smaller bits of water. Aristotle’s view contains no logical contradiction. It was certainly consistent with Aristotle’s conception of water that it be homoiomerous, so this was, for him, a conceptual possibility. But if chemistry is right, Aristotle was wrong both about what water is like and what is possible for it. It can’t be infinitely divided, even though no logical or conceptual analysis would reveal that.

Similarly the conceptual formulation of existence of a way for backward travel has been theorized but its practicality cannot be determined. And concept alone cannot rule out the possibility of time travel but in all senses it seems near impossible anytime soon or ever.

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International News

Beirut explosion explained

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In one of the biggest non-nuclear explosions, 2,750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate, used in fertilisers and bombs, destroyed part of the Lebanese capital Beirut on Tuesday. The massive blast at Beirut port killed at least 100 people and injured nearly 4,000. 

What triggered the explosion?

The ammonium nitrate had reportedly been in a warehouse in Beirut port for six years after it was unloaded from a ship impounded in 2013.

The head of Beirut port and the head of the customs authority both told local media that they had written to the judiciary several times asking that the chemical be exported or sold on to ensure port safety.

Port General Manager Hassan Koraytem told OTV that they had been aware that the material was dangerous when a court first ordered it stored in the warehouse, “but not to this degree”.

What is ammonium nitrate

  1. Common industrial chemical used mainly as fertiliser in agriculture
  2. Also one of the main components in explosives used in mining
  3. Not explosive on its own, ignites only under the right circumstances
  4. When it explodes, it can release toxic gases including nitrogen oxides and ammonia gas
  5. Strict rules on how to store it safely: site has to be fire-proofed, and not have any drains, pipes or other channels in which ammonium nitrate could build up.

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Knowledge & Infos

How bad and alarming is Corona situation in Nepal

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Image via Kush

As of today, while writing this post, according to worldometer,

World wide corona cases

18,805,350

Deaths

706,445

How much in Nepal so far?

21,390.

It was like yesterday, when we were barely in below 10 and then became 50 and then 100 and 500, and we stopped counting. Many people probably don’t even know that we have now crossed 20 thousands, out of which 60 deaths from corona (official number…it maybe much higher).

But looking at market, streets, and the people, it feels like nothing is happening.

“I have not met or known anyone with Corona yet….i don’t know who is making up those numbers” such doubt might even have crossed across some heads.

And today, the government has rolled back odd/even rule, and seems like even prepared for another Lockdown.

Are things really that bad? Or is it that government knows nothing but to impose lockdown as a childplay? Basically, lockdown is not a solution but a strategy to slow down the rate of disease transmission, so that the situation would not crash our healthcare system, where we have more demand for intensive care than our healthcare system can actually provide.

So, have we reached there yet?

The Kathmandu Post writes:

Due to the rapid spike in the new cases in Kathmandu, all the beds and intensive care units available at hospitals allocated for Covid-19 patients are now occupied. “We are not in a position to admit new patients at our hospital, as all beds are occupied,” Dr Sagar Raj Bhandari, the hospital’s director, told the Post. “We have to send asymptomatic patients home to self-isolate and provide treatment to serious patients.”
The situation is similar at other designated Covid-19 treatment hospitals in the Valley, as all of them have all of their beds occupied by patients. With beds unavailable for new patients, health ministry officials have even stopped contacting infected people to inform them about their test results. “Beds at all hospitals—Sukraraj, Patan Hospital, Armed Police Force, Tribhuvan University Teaching— and isolation facilities at Kirtipur are now occupied by infected people.” “We have been struggling to manage beds for infected people,” an official at the ministry told.

Of the 62 people who tested positive until Monday evening, authorities could arrange beds only for 48. The remaining 14 were sent to Kathmandu Medical College’s isolation unit in Duwakot, Bhaktapur, on Tuesday.

We are not in condition to contact people, who tested positive today, as we don’t have beds for them,” said an official.

Officials from the Epidemiology and Disease Control Division are now banking on the 100-bed isolation ward set up at the Kathmandu Medical College hospital in Duwakot by converting female wards into males. But that too has its challenges.

Doctors at the health ministry concede that the situation in the Valley is alarming, but said that there were no options but to take precautionary measures.

Pretty scary, huh? Stay safe, stay responsible. Just because you have not met any corona-infected does not mean it’s not out there. Trust the numbers, cooperate with authorities, listen to experts, take a precautionary measure. There is no second option.

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Knowledge & Infos

What is bail and why it is in practice

Since many seem confused about what is bail and why it is granted, reason and logic behind, which is creating more confusion and mistrust, we created this informative article to give a fundamental understanding on the topic.

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If you believe in rule of law, you must be ready to live by the principles on which rule of law is founded upon.

You must have come across news like:

“Salman Khan gets bail in Blackbuck Poaching case”
” Corruption-charged politician is out of jail after paying the bail”
“Man accused in fatal drunk-driving case released on bail”

And, if you have ever felt anything like “shit! criminals are just walking out paying money. No law for rich…only for poor,” then you really need to read this. Glad you are here.

What is Bail

In simple term, Bail is the conditional release of a defendant (accused person) with the promise to appear in court when required.

To understand, concept of bail, you must first understand Rule of Law. In rule of law, everyone is innocent until proven guilty. Just because a news said Salman Khan killed a Blackbuck does not mean he is to be imprisoned immediately without a court trial. Even if someone is caught red hand taking a bribe, still no one but the court to tell if was a corruption or not.

So, generally speaking, the procedure is, when someone is accused of an offence or crime, a case is lodged in police station. Then, the police comes and takes the accused one to custody, from where he will be taken to the court for a trial.

Well, court trial is a long process. More complex the case is, more lengthy it will get. Moreover, court has many pending cases and while lining up in the cue, it may take quite sometime to settle the case. So the question comes, should the accused one be locked till the case is not settled or let the accused one be trialed by putting in a followup.

The main concern comes thereafter, what if the defendant (accused one) does not show up once freed? What if the person absconds from the trial? That is why the bail bond. Bail bond is a deposit of money or some form of property to the court by the suspect in return for the release from pre-trial detention.

So when you hear the news like “Person A is released paying the bail of 5 lakhs,” understand that he/she didn’t really got freed by paying money but rather was only bailed out. He/she still has to go through the trial and once proven guilty, has to serve the imprisonment per the law.

Why the Bail

An accused person is not necessarily guilty. Just because someone has accused you of a corruption, it does not necessarily mean to be true, same with many other charges. Now think of a real world. A man with a job is charged of corruption. Is it justifiable to lock him behind a bar forever until he is not proven innocent? What about his job? He may have wife and children at home, what about them? It may take 6 months to settle the case. What if he is proven innocent? Who gonna give him back his job that he lost for being absent for so long, the pain and struggle that wife and children had to bear?

World is not just about Salman Khan or a corrupted politician or rich dad’s son. It has all kind of people with their own struggle, own story, and world is not always fair. That is WHY THE BAIL SYSTEM. If a person is guilty, anyway s/he will be put behind the bar after the judgement is announced. Until then why make them suffer or their family, make them lose their job or cost them heavy, which would be hard to compensate if proven not guilty.

Now, understand this. Law is for everyone. You cannot make one law for poor and one for rich or one for common people and another for celebrity. Likewise, bail as a law cannot be different for rich and poor, or common people and celebrity. “Oh he is celebrity, let’s not give him a bail.” It does not work that way and is not fair.

We get to hear mostly rich people or celebrity getting released on bail because they make a news and not ordinary people. In reality though, bail is also granted for ordinary people.

For this reasoning, bail is a fundamental rights granted by constitution in many countries like Canada.

When the bail is not given

There are also certain cases and crimes which are nonbailable, like for example rape, first-degree murder, terrorism, etc.

Who grants the bail and when

Judge grants the bail after hearing the plead and if the defendant demonstrates compelling reasons why bail should be granted. Bail bond amount depends on person to person, case to case, and the gravity of the situation. Like for example, George Floyd murder suspect Derek Chauvin has bail set at $1.25m.

The decision lies solely on a judge. In the case of Prithvi Malla, defendant first reached to Kathmandu District Court pleading for bail but judge didn’t grant the bail. Then the party appealed in Patan High Court and there too was denied. Then they went to Supreme Court and that’s when joint bench of Sapana Malla Pradhan and Manoj Sharma granted the bail. You see, judge can deny but can appeal to higher court until the supreme court.

Does this only happen in Nepal

Obviously no. The practice came from English law, which later became worldwide.

If you just google bail and search news, you can see lots of news related to bail.

In short

Bail does not mean judiciary selling out itself for the money. It neither means case is over nor means the accused one set free or proven innocent. It only means, instead of being detained on mere accusation, let the accused one to fight the case from outside, while carrying out his daily activities of living and doing his duties. If s/he is proven guilty after the fair trial, s/he will any way serve the imprisonment per the law. Until then why detain if judge is convinced that s/he will not abscond, will comply with the process, and will not interfere with the witnesses, and will not commit further offence.

Hope, you are clear and hence don’t think fishy or conspiracy just because a news said “released on bail.” If you really want to raise your voice, raise a voice on why it takes so much time to settle a case. That should be your real concern against judiciary and not the bail. Bail is a beautiful concept.

This article has only tried to give you a fundamental understanding on what is bail, why it is in practice, the reason and importance, and how it works. With this, we are sure you can research more in depth and have more better and deeper understanding so that you don’t cry foul next time just like that.

If you believe in rule of law, you must be ready to live by the principles on which rule of law is founded upon.

Do it only if you meant it.
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